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How to Hypnotize Someone

How to Hypnotize Someone

Hypnosis, another method of deliberately influencing consciousness, has its roots in various healing techniques that date back through human history. Ancient peoples of India, Egypt, and Greece reported techniques that are quite similar to modern inductions of hypnosis. Current interest in hypnosis may be traced to the work of Franz Anton Mesmer [...]

What is Free Will?

What is Free Will?

What is Free Will? This might sound more like a philosophy question than a psychology question at first, but advances in biological and cognitive psychology have allowed psychologists to tackle this question. Usually, we think of free will as the ability to consciously control our actions and decisions. In the children’s game of “rock, paper, [...]

The Psychology of Taste

The Psychology of Taste

The Psychology of Taste  The most likely original purpose of our sense of gustation, or taste, was to protect us from eating poisonous or spoiled food and to attract us to foods that boost our chances of survival. Although we seem biased toward detecting negative stimuli (Cacioppo & Gardner, 1999), our attraction to certain tastes also [...]

Humanistic Psychology

Humanistic Psychology

Humanistic Psychology By the 1960s, American psychology was primarily characterized by behaviorism on one side and Freud’s theories on the other. Structuralism had fallen into disfavor, and functionalism and Gestalt psychology were no longer distinct schools of thought. Just as other aspects of American culture began to feature rebelliousness [...]

Functionalism

Functionalism

Functionalism Functionalism emerged, partly in response to the publication of Charles Darwin’s The Origin of Species in 1859 and The Descent of Man in 1871. Functionalism viewed behavior as purposeful, since it led to survival. Nineteenth-century United States politics and culture, which valued individuality, practicality, and frontier [...]

The Emergence of Psychology As a Dicipline

The Emergence of Psychology As a Dicipline

The Emergence of Psychology As a Dicipline The credit for being the first psychologist goes to Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920), who conducted the first documented psychological experiment in his laboratory at the University of Leipzig in 1879. This landmark experiment was a simple test of reaction time. How quickly after hearing a ball drop onto a [...]

Discourse Analysis

Discourse Analysis

Discourse Analysis Discourse analysis refers to a lively but theoretically contested crossroads between several social science disciplines. Here social and cognitive psychologists have come into creative but sometimes rather uncomfortable contact with sociologists, philosophers, rhetoricians, linguists and literary theorists as they rework [...]

Cognitive Psychology

Cognitive Psychology

Cognitive Psychology Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that attempts to understand how the mind works. More specifically, cognitive psychologists are interested in how the mind processes information, with a focus on underlying processes of attention, perception, learning, and memory. Cognitive psychology found strong roots as a [...]

What is Developmental Psychology

What is Developmental Psychology

Developmental Psychology Developmental psychology studies change in psychological structures and processes during the life cycle. Although traditionally focused on childhood and adolescence, it has extended its scope to adulthood and old age as well. Two factors stimulated the rise of developmental psychology towards the end of the nineteenth [...]

Leadership Behavior

Leadership Behavior

Leadership Behavior Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, research centered on descriptions of leader behavior or style, and its effect on the attitudes and behavior of other group members. Questionnaires and other instruments were developed to gauge the leader's and followers' perceptions of leader behavior, and these in turn were related to [...]

The Theory of Coercive Control

The Theory of Coercive Control

The Theory of Coercive Control The coercive control model developed from applications of learning theory to the experiences of persons undergoing severe restraint in nonfamilial settings, particularly hostages, prisoners of war (POWs), inmates, mental patients, and members of religious cults. The parallels between these experiences and abuse [...]

Children Witnessing Parental Violence

Children Witnessing Parental Violence

Children Witnessing Parental Violence The psychic pain and debilitating effects, both short- and long-term, experienced by children who witness parental violence frequently goes unnoticed by others. These children are also the victims of domestic violence, even though they may not be direct targets of the abuse. They are being maltreated, [...]

Sexual Behaviour in Marriage and Close Relationships

Sexual Behaviour in Marriage and Close Relationships

Sexual Behaviour in Marriage and Close Relationships The scientific study of sexuality is not limited to a single discipline but involves scholars from a variety of fields, including sociology, psychology, and biology. The multidisciplinary nature of sexuality research lends itself to various and often contradictory theoretical interpretations [...]

Educational Psychology

Educational Psychology

Educational Psychology The enduring difficulties that face both the academic and the professional sectors of educational psychology are due to three factors. First, educational psychology mirrors all the propensities and peculiarities of psychology. Second, and perhaps as a consequence, no distinctive approach or unified understanding of the [...]

Alienation

Alienation

Alienation Alienation (in German Entfremdung), sometimes called estrangement, is claimed to be a phenomenon of the human or social world. It is usually identified in psychological, sociological or philosophical- anthropological terms derived especially from the writings of Hegel, Feuerbach and Marx – though already in Calvin there is an [...]

Family Relations

Family Relations

Family Relations The social psychology of family relations is largely concerned with the initiation, development, and deterioration of CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS. The nature of these relationships may take many forms but typically involves individuals who view themselves as a unit with a long-term commitment to continue their relationship. [...]

Hans Eysenck

Hans Eysenck

Hans Eysenck Hans Eysenck is a well-known psychologist, based at the University of London. He developed his ‘Eysenck Personality Inventory’ which rates personality on the basis of characteristics such as extroversion—introversion, neuroticism and psychoticism. Directly opposed to and publicly critical of Freudian psychoanalysis, Eysenck [...]

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