CHAPTER 1 TENSES – 1.1 PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE VS SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

FORM

Helping Verbs: am, is, are

Common/Time Expressions: now, at the moment, at present, nowadays, currently, still, right now, just now, these days

Affirmative/Positive Sentence Structure (SUBJECT + AM/IS/ARE + VERBing …)

I am writing a letter now.

He/She/It is playing in the garden at the moment

We/You/They are watching TV at present.

Negative Sentence Structure (S + AM NOT/ISN’T/AREN’T + Ving …)

I am not — I’m not looking out of the window right now.

He/She/It is not — /He/She/It isn’t sleeping at the moment.

We/You/They are not – We/You/They aren’t surfing on the internet now.

Question Sentence Structure (AM/IS/ARE + S + Ving …?)

Am I talking to the wrong person? Yes, you are./No, you aren’t.

Is he/she/it crying? Yes, she is./No, she isn’t.

Are we/you/they working too hard? Yes, they are./No, they aren’t.

USE

Present Continuous Tense is used,

-for the actions that take place at the moment of speaking.

I’m learning now.

-for the actions that take place around now. (not necessarily at the moment of speaking)

We are having great fun at school these days.

-for gradual change or development.

It is getting darker and darker.

-with forever, constantly, continually and always to express complaint.

He is always asking silly questions.

-for definitely arranged near future actions.

The Smiths are flying to Florida tomorrow morning.

FORM

Helping Verbs: do, does (**These helping verbs are used in Negatives and Questions, but not in Affirmative Sentences)

Time Expressions: everyday, every week/month/year, once (a week), twice (a month)

**These time expressions indicate frequency (How often?) rather than a point in time (When?).

Affirmative/Positive Sentence Structure (SUBJECT + VERB(s) + OBJECT …)

I/We/You/They play tennis every weekend.

He/She/It eats breakfast every morning. (**We add -s to the base form of the verb in third person singular.)

Negative Sentence Structure (S + DON’T/DOESN’T + V … )

I/We/You/They do not/don’t like coffee.

He/She/It does not/doesn’t eat meat.

Question Sentence Structure (DO/DOES + S + V …?)

Do I/we/you/they look tired? Yes, I do./No, I don’t.

Does he/she/it have many friends?

USE

Simple Present Tense is used,

-for regular, repeated or routine actions.

I buy a new car every year.

-for habits.

My father gets up before dawn every morning..

-for general truths or natural/scientific facts

Water boils at 100 Centigrade degree

-for future actions based on a time table or schedule.

The bus leaves at 10 tomorrow morning.

-for actions that take place at the moment of speaking with non-progressive verbs. (**Non- progressive verbs are those which we cannot add -ing, so we can’t use them in continuous tenses.)

I need someone to help me now.

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