A- Watch and/or listen to the video and choose the right word.

It is known as the cradle of 1 _____ beneath the desert of modern Iraq. In the greatest depths of history the civilizations of Mesopotamia developed between the Tigres and Euphrates rivers. Much of what we know has come from the painstaking 2 _____ of ruined cities and intensive translations of clay tablets. Archeologists have found 3 _____ of early agriculture in the north that date back 9000 years but recorded history begins further south with a group known as the Sumerians. Around 5000 BC people settled into an agricultural lifestyle in the 4 _____ alluvial plain fed by the Tigres and Euphrates. In a land of little rain fall Mesopotamians built dikes created canals and channels to capture the life-giving flood waters. Easy 5 _____ systems ensured bondable harvest every year.


What developed were the world’s first string of cities with names like Ur and Eridu. Crop 6 _____ allowed the population to expand and its society to flourish. Towns of brick were built with a temple at their center. The temple grounds house many functions in daily life. There one can find 7 _____ stores a treasury and quarters for priests, officials, entertainers and craftsman. Above it all rose the ziggurat a holly tower with a spiraling ramp. Kings were 8 _____ as representatives of the gods on Earth. From this model towns evolved into city states and even empires. As society became more complex, people needed tools for recording the 9 _____ of animals and food. Using templates made of rock clay early Mesopotamians developed Cuneiform, the first written language. By pressing wedge-shaped forms into the soft wet material they kept 10 _____ records of commodities like sheep and grain. It spread to other uses and scripts recorded the first major 11 _____ work known to western civilization, The Epic of Gilgamesh. Following the story of king Gilgamesh 12 _____ on a quest for immortality but ultimately fails. Perhaps the best known of Mesopotamian civilizations was Babylon. During the second millennia BC. It rose from a 13 _____capital to become the center of a kingdom that encompass southern Iraq and beyond. Its hanging gardens were famous throughout the western world as an ancient 14 _____, and its king Hammurabi left his mark with a collection of laws. Hammurabi’s code as it’s known today defined private 15 _____ as well as legal decisions for crimes, family disputes and commerce. Although it was eventually lost to the sands of time, Mesopotamia left a legacy of law, literature and engineering for modern civilizations still built on.


A) simulation  B) civilization  C) hibernation D) ventilation


A) excavations  B) exhibitions  C) extensions D) expansions


A) trails  B) trailers  C) tracers D) traces


A) futile  B) flair  C) fertile D) flicker


A) irritation  B) irrigation  C) illumination D) irradiation


A) surcharges  B) surrounds  C) surfaces D) surpluses


A) grail  B) gram   C) grain D) grange


A) revered  B) referred  C) retailed D) repelled


A) treat  B) trade  C) trait D) thread


A) transfusion  B) transcription C) transaction D) transection


A) literary  B) literate  C) literally D) literacy


A) embodies  B) embeds  C) embezzles D) embarks


A) probable  B) provincial  C) provisional D) provable


A) wander  B) wider  C) wonder D) whisper


A) properly  B) prophecy  C) property D) proposal

B- Mark the statements as True (T), False (F) or No Information (NI).

1- The settlers of Mesopotamia were mostly farmers.

2- Mesopotamians often suffered from flooding.

3- Primitive means of agriculture caused hunger.

4- Ur and Eridu were the most prosperous cities of their time.

5- Mesopotamian civilizations lacked literary creativity.

6- Hamurabi’s laws were designed to resolve many different types of conflict.

7- King Gilgamesh finally managed to attain immortality.

8- Cuneiform was too complex for many people to learn.

C- Match the words with their definitions.

…. cradle                  A) make something certain

…. painstaking        B) develop gradually

…. ensure                 C) traded item

…. flourish               D) careful and detailed

…. evolve                  E) disagreement

…. commodity         F) the place where something begins

…. dispute                G) do well

D- What do the following words refer to?

1- “its society” in line 12 refers to

2- “their” in line 13 refers to

3- “it” in line 22 refers to

4- “its king” in line 29 refers to

5- “it” in line 32 refers to



A- Watch and/or listen to the video and choose the right word.

1 B) civilization

2 A) excavations

3 D) traces

4 C) fertile

5 B) irrigation

6 D) surpluses

7 C) grain

8 A) revered

9 B) trade

10 C) transaction

11 A) literary

12 D) embarks

13 B) provincial

14 C) wonder

15 C) property

B- Mark the statements as True (T), False (F) or No Information (NI).

1- T 2- F 3- F 4- NI 5- F 6- T 7- F 8- NI

C- Match the words with their definitions.

…. cradle                 F) the place where something begins

…. painstaking       D) careful and detailed

…. ensure                A) make something certain

…. flourish              G) do well

…. evolve                 B) develop gradually

…. commodity        C) traded item

…. dispute               E) disagreement

D- What do the following words refer to?

1- “its society” in line 12 refers to Mesopotamians

2- “their” in line 13 refers to cities’

3- “it” in line 22 refers to Cuneiform

4- “its king” in line 29 refers to Babylon’s king

5- “it” in line 32 refers to Mesopotamia

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